Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
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Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2017 Sep; 21(5): 495-507
Sung-Su Kim, Soo-Hyun Park, Jae-Ryung Lee, Jun-Sub Jung, and Hong-Won Suh*
The activation of α2-adrenergic receptor in the spinal cord lowers sepsis-induced mortality
Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Natural Medicine, College of Medicine Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea
The effect of clonidine administered intrathecally (i.t.) on the mortality and the blood glucose level induced by sepsis was examined in mice. To produce sepsis, the mixture of D-galactosamine (GaLN; 0.6 g/10 ml)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 27 µg/27 µl) was treated intraperitoneally (i.p.). The i.t. pretreatment with clonidine (5 µg/5 µl) increased the blood glucose level and attenuated mortality induced by sepsis in a dose-dependent manner. The i.t. post-treatment with clonidine up to 3 h caused an elevation of the blood glucose level and protected sepsis-induced mortality, whereas clonidine post-treated at 6, 9, or 12 h did not affect. The pre-treatment with oral D-glucose for 30 min prior to i.t. post-treatment (6 h) with clonidine did not rescue sepsis-induced mortality. In addition, i.t. pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX) reduced clonidine-induced protection against mortality and clonidine-induced hyperglycemia, suggesting that protective effect against sepsis-induced mortality seems to be mediated via activating PTX-sensitive G-proteins in the spinal cord. Moreover, pretreatment with clonidine attenuated the plasma tumor necrosis factorα (TNF-α) induced by sepsis. Clonidine administered i.t. or i.p. increased p-AMPKα1 and p-AMPKα2, but decreased p-Tyk2 and p-mTOR levels in both control and sepsis groups, suggesting that the up-regulations of p-AMPKα1 and p-AMPKα2, or down-regulations of p-mTOR and p-Tyk2 may play critical roles for the protective effect of clonidine against sepsis-induced mortality.
Keyword : Blood glucose, Clonidine, p-AMPKα1, Sepsis, TNF-α, α2-adrenergic receptor